Schizophrenia is a serious mental disorder that generally starts in late adolescence or early adulthood. This illness effects nearly 1 in 100 persons in their lifetime. It is a chronic brain disorder varying in presentation, symptoms severity and course. However with
Symptoms clusters found in schizophrenia include:
(a) thought disorders
(b) delusions of control, influence, or passivity
(c) hallucinatory voices giving a running commentary on the patient’s behaviour, or discussing the patient among themselves, or other types of hallucinatory voices coming from some part of the body;
(d) persistent delusions of other kinds that are culturally inappropriate and completely
(e) persistent hallucinations in any modality, when accompanied either by fleeting or half-formed delusions
(f) breaks or interpolations in the train of thought, resulting in incoherence or irrelevant speech, or neologisms
(g) catatonic behaviour, such as excitement, posturing, or waxy flexibility, negativism, mutism, and stupor;
(h) “negative” symptoms such as marked apathy, paucity of speech, and blunt emotional responses, usually resulting in social withdrawal and lowering of social performance
(i) a significant and consistent change in the overall quality of some aspects of personal behaviour, manifest as loss of interest, aimlessness, idleness, a self-absorbed attitude, and social withdrawal.
There is no simple test to diagnose Schzophrenia. Diagnosis of Schizophrenia is based on careful clinical evaluation to rule out other medical neurological conditions, substance intoxication/ withdrawal, tests and screenings, mental status evaluation and diagnostic psychiatric evaluation, and fulfilment of diagnostic criteria as laid out in ICD 10 and DSM 5. The psychiatric evaluation includes clinical history, mental status examination, family/personal/substance abuse history and diagnostic psychiatry rating scales.
Course and Outcome of Schizophrenia in women
Other types of Psychosis
Apart from Schizophrenia other conditions with psychosis include Schizoaffective disorder, Schizotypal/ Schizoid personality disorders, Delusional disorder, Brief and Transient psychotic disorder. Psychosis symptoms and presentation may be a part of many other psychiatric illnesses and medical disorders. The prognosis, treatment modality and response varies with the diagnosis.